International Critical Commentary on Romans

William Sanday [1843-1920] & Arthur Cayley Headlam [1862-1947], A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans

William Sanday and Arthur Headlam’s Commentary on Romans is often recommended as being one of the best in the International Critical Commentary old series. Even if you have the replacement by C.E.B. Cranfield, this one is still worth referring to. This title entered the public domain in 2018.

William Sanday [1843-1920] & Arthur Cayley Headlam [1862-1947], A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. The International Critical Commentary, 5th Edn. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1908. Hbk. pp.450.

Click here to visit the Romans page for the link to this commentary and other free material.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Introduction
    § 1. Romans in A.D. 58
    § 2. The Jews in Rome
    § 3. The Roman Church
    § 4. Time and Place, Occasion and Purpose
    § 5. Argument
    § 6. Language and Style
    § 7. Text
    § 8. Literary History
    § 9. Integrity
    § 10. Commentaries
  • Commentary
  • Detached Notes
    The Theological Terminology of Rom. i. 1-7
    The word dikaios and its cognates
    The Meaning of Faith in the New Testament and in some Jewish Writings
    The Righteousness of God
    St. Paul’s Description of the Condition of the Heathen World.
    Use of the Book of Wisdom in Chapter i 5
    The Death of Christ considered as a Sacrifice
    The History of Abraham as treated by St. Paul and by St. James
    Jewish Teaching on Circumcision
    The Place of the Resurrection of Christ in the teaching of St. Paul
    Is the Society or the Individual the proper object of Justification?
    The Idea of Reconciliation or Atonement
    The Effects of Adam’s Fall in Jewish Theology
    St. Paul’s Conception of Sin and of the Fall
    History of the Interpretation of the Pauline doctrine of dikaiosis
    The Doctrine of Mystical Union with Christ
    The Inward Conflict
    St. Paul’s View of the Law
    The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit
    The Renovation of Nature
    The Privileges of Israel
    The Punctuation of Rom. ix. 5
    The Divine Election
    The Divine Sovereignty in the Old Testament
    The Power and Rights of God as Creator
    The Relation of St. Paul’s Argument in chap. ix to the Book of Wisdom
    A History of the Interpretation of Rom. ix. 6-29
    The Argument of ix. 30-x. 21: Human Responsibility
    St. Paul’s Use of the Old Testament
    The Doctrine of the Remnant
    The Merits of the Fathers
    The Argument of Romans ix-xi
    St. Paul’s Philosophy of History
    The Salvation of the Individual: Free-Will and Predestination
    Spiritual Gifts
    The Church and the Civil Power
    The History of the word agape
    The Christian Teaching on Love
    The early Christian belief in the nearness of the parousia
    The relation of Chapters xii-xiv to the Gospels
    What sect or party is referred to in Rom. xiv?
    Aquila and Priscilla
  • Index
    • Subjects
    • Latin Words
    • Greek Words

Commentary on Epistles of Timothy and Titus by A.E. Humphreys

Alfred Edward Humphreys [1844-?], The Epistles of Timothy and Titus

This is a short commentary on the letters of 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus intended for use in Schools and Colleges. The author argues strongly for Pauline authorship in what appears to be a very useful introduction.

My thanks to Book Aid for making available a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Alfred Edward Humphreys [1844-?], The Epistles of Timothy and Titus. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897. Hbk. pp.271. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Text and Notes
    1. The Genuineness and Date of the Epistles
    2. The Friends Addressed in the Epistles
    3. The Theme and Content of the Epistles
  3. Appendix
  4. Indices
    Map

External Evidence

There was never any doubt in the Church, from the first century down to the present, but that St Paul was the author of these epistles. The rejection by Marcion, as has been well pointed out, increases the force of this testimony, as it shews that attention was expressly called to the subject. And Marcion’s, Canon of Scripture was fixed not by the evidence of authenticity, but by his own approval of the contents, of any book.

The attack made in the present century upon the genuineness of the epistles relies upon arguments drawn from their internal characteristics. In estimating the weight to be attached to these arguments it is of importance to be first sufficiently impressed by the strength of the external evidence. Instead therefore of dismissing this side of the question in a sentence, it is well to place in view the different groups of testimonies down to the acknowledged position given to the epistles by the Church in Canon and Council.

Page 9

Top 10 Biblical Studies Downloads in 2018

Top 10 Biblical Studies Downloads in 2018 1

It is great to see the free resources available via Theology on the Web being used. Here are the top nine articles (and one book) downloaded from BiblicalStudies.org.uk in 2018.

  1. Figures of Speech in the Bible by Robert I Bradshaw [13,909 downloads]
  2. J. Paul Tanner, “The History of Interpretation of the Song of Songs,” Bibliotheca Sacra 154: 613 (1997): 23-46. [5,281 downloads]
  3. F.F. Bruce, “The Gospel of Thomas: Presidential Address 14 May 1960,” Faith and Thought 92.1 (1961): 3-23. [3,472 downloads]
  4. Robert E. Picirilli, “The Meaning of ‘Epignosis’,” Evangelical Quarterly 47.2 (Apr.-June 1975): 85-93. [3,386 downloads]
  5. F.F. Bruce, “Christianity Under Claudius,” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44.1 (March 1962): 309-26. [3,348 downloads]
  6. Edward J. Young, “The Background of Psalm 139,” Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 8.3 (Summer 1965): 101-110. [3,233 downloads]
  7. Elmer Towns, “The Meaning of Heart in the New Testament,” Grace Journal 12.1 (Winter 1971): 36-45. [2,875 downloads]
  8. Burnett Hillman Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins Treating of The Manuscript Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates. London: MacMillan & Co., Ltd., 1930. [2,607 downloads]
  9. Bulus Galadima & Yusufu Turaki. “Christianity in Nigeria Part I,” Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 20.1 (2001): 85-101. [2,605 downloads]
  10. Roy Yates, “Paul’s Affliction in Asia: 2 Corinthians 1:8,” The Evangelical Quarterly 53.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1981): 241-245. [2,495 downloads]

I am surprised by No. 1 – this indicates to me that there could be a demand for more material on figures of speech in the Bible.