Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 2012-2015 now on-line

Africa Journal of Evangelical hosts the on-line archive of the Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology. I have just uploaded the 2012 through 2015 issues which are all available for free download here.

Table of Contents

Vol. 31 (2012)

Andrew Wildsmith, “AIDS and Theology: Introduction,” 31.1 (2012): 1-3.

Samuel Ngewa, “Who is the Neighbour? An Application of Luke 10:30-37 to the HIV and AIDS Crisis,” 31.1 (2012): 5-9.

Diane Stinton, “‘Into Africa’: Contextual Research Methods for Theology and HIV and AIDS in Africa,” 31.1 (2012): 11-24.

Priscilla Adoyo, “Sexual Issues, HIV/AIDS, and the Role of the Church,” 31.1 (2012): 25-31.

Nkansah-Obrempong, “Theology and HIV and AIDS,” 31.1 (2012): 33-42.

Mary Getui/E. Odongi, “Gender Issues in Relation to HIV and AIDS,” 31.1 (2012): 43-48.

Peter Okaalet, “The Church and AIDS in Africa: Towards a Spiritual Answer,” 31.1 (2012): 49-59.

John Chaplin, “Some New Perspectives and Advances on HIV and AIDS Prevention and Treatment,” 31.1 (2012): 61-66.

Keith Ferdinando, “Evil and AIDS: An African Perspective,” 31.1 (2012): 67-84.

Rich Harrell/Committee, “Theological Perspective on HIV and AIDS: Summary statements,” 31.1 (2012): 85-86.

“Resources and Books,” 31.1 (2012): 87-88.

Editorial, “Controversy in Politics, Ideology, Theology and the Church,” 31.2 (2012): 89.

Judith L. Hill, “The New Testament and Political Democracy,” 31.2 (2012): 91-104.

Timothy M. Njoya, “Church and Politics: With Aspects Relating to Governance, Public Policy and Ethnicity,” 31.2 (2012): 105-114.

Joseph B.O. Okello, “The Pastors, Politics and People of Kenya,” 31.2 (2012): 115-122.

Patrick U. Nwosu, “The Ideal State in Jesus’ Ministry and Contemporary Nigeria.” 31.2 (2012): 123-130.

Tersur Aben, “Is Postmodernism Coherent?” 31.2 (2012): 131-138.

Mark Olander, “Creative Teaching Methods in Theological Education,” 31.2 (2012): 139-143.

Danny McCain, “Pentecostals and Others: Challenging and Learning from Each Other,” 31.2 (2012): 145-169.

“Book Reviews,” 31.2 (2012): 171-175.

“Books Received,” 31.2 (2012): 176.

Vol. 32 (2013)

“Editorial: Not as Easy as it Looks: Leadership and the Church,” 32.1 (2013): 1.

“Contributors to AJET 32.1 2013,” 32.1 (2013): 2.

Elizabeth Mburu, “Leadership – Isolation, Absorption of Engagement: Paul, The Paradigmatic Role Model,” 32.1 (2013): 3-19.

Julius Muthengi, “Effective Mentoring and its Implications for Student Personal and Professional Development,” 32.1 (2013): 21-36.

Lois Semenye, “Spiritual Formation of Christian Leaders,” 32.1 (2013): 37-46.

Daryll Stanton, “Developing Good Church Leadership Habits,” 32.1 (2013): 47-59.

Danny McCain, “Addressing Urban Problems Through Kingdom Theology: The ‘Apostles in the Market Place’ Model in Lagos, Nigeria,” 32.1 (2013): 61-80.

“Books Reviews,” 32.1 (2013): 81-87.

“Books Received,” 32.1 (2013): 88.

“Editorial: The Bible and its Cultural Context,” 32.2 (2013): 89.

“Contributors to AJET 32.2 2013,” 32.2 (2013): 90.

Joel H. Songela, “Divorce and Remarriage in Scripture,” 32.2 (2013): 91-106.

Kojo Okyere, “The Pedagogy of Sexual Morality in Proverbs Five,” 32.2 (2013): 107-119.

Joel K.T. Biwul, “Preaching Biblically in the Nigerian Prosperity Gospel Context,” 32.2 (2013): 121-134.

Luvuyo Ntombana, “Reconciliation between the BCSA and the BUSA from a Biblical Perspective,” 32.2 (2013): 135-150.

Emmanuel Amoafo, “Improving African Christian Leadership: A Biblical View,” 32.2 (2013): 153-159.

“Book Reviews,” 32.2 (2013): 161-175.

Vol. 33 (2014)

“Editorial: Transforming African Christian Theology,” 33.1 (2014): 1.

“Contributors to AJET 33.1 2014,” 33.1 (2014): 2.

David Kirwa Tarus, “Social Transformation in The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians,” 33.1 (2014): 3-22.

Fabulous Moyo & Erwin van der Meer, “The Christian Church and Witchcraft Accusations in Africa,” 33.1 (2014): 23-40.

Georgette Short, “Satan and Demons in Popular Christian Theology,” 33.1 (2014): 41-56.

Timothy P. Palmer, “African Christian Theology: A New Paradigm,” 33.1 (2014): 57-66.

Philip Tachin, “Humanity Made in the Image of God: Towards Ethnic Unity in Africa,” 33.1 (2014): 67-82.

“Book Reviews,” 33.1 (2014): 83-88.

“Editorial: The Magic of Money and Ministry,” 33.2 (2014): 89.

“Contributors to AJET 33.2 2014,” 33.2 (2014): 90.

Gift Mtukwa, “A Reconsideration of Self-Support in Light of Paul’s “Collection for the Saints” (1 Cor. 16:1),” 33.2 (2014): 91-106.

Rosemary W. Mbogo, “Financial Sustainability in Ministry,” 33.2 (2014): 107-122.

Rodney Reed, “Giving to Caesar What is Caesar’s: The Ethics of Paying Taxes from a Christian Perspective, Part One: The Bible,” 33.2 (2014): 123-145.

Andrew G. Wildsmith, “The Ideal Life, Jesus, and Prosperity Theology,” 33.2 (2014): 147-164.

“Book Reviews,” 33.2 (2014): 165-174.

“Books Received,” 33.2 (2014): 175-176.

Vol. 34 (2015)

“Editorial: Changes and Choices,” 34.1 (2015): 1.

“Contributors to AJET 34.1 2015,” 34.1 (2015): 2.

Stephanie Black, “Key Hermeneutical Questions for African Evangelicals Today,” 34.1 (2015): 3-33.

Stefan Höschele, “To Baptize or Not to Baptize? Adventists and Polygamous Converts,” 34.1 (2015): 35-50.

Rodney Reed, “Giving to Caesar What is Caesar’s: The Ethics of Paying Taxes from a Christian Perspective, Part Two: Tradition, Reason and Experience,” 34.1 (2015): 51-68.

Gregg Okesson, “God and Development: Doxology in African Christianity,” 34.1 (2015): 69-84.

“Book Review,” 34.1 (2015): 85-88.

“Editorial: Improving Christian Education in Churches and Colleges,” 34.2 (2015): 89.

“Contributors to AJET 34.2 2015,” 34.2 (2015): 90.

Mary Mwangi, “Augustine’s Educational Theories and Practices and Church Education Today,” 34.2 (2015): 91-107.

Joseph Bangura, “Tracking the Maze of Theological Education in Sierra Leone: An Evangelical Perspective,” 34.2 (2015): 109-126.

Benjamin Musyoka, “Financial Sustainability in Christian Higher Education in Africa,” 34.2 (2015): 127-136.

Janice Rasmussen, “Transformed by the Renewing of Your Mind: Exploring Change in International Students at Africa International University,” 34.2 (2015): 137-157.

Benjamin Musyoka, “The Integration of Faith and Learning: Aligning Values and Intentionality with the Mind of God,” 34.2 (2015): 159-171.

“Book Review,” 34.2 (2015): 173-176.

Commentary on Paul’s Letters to the Thessalonians by G.G. Findlay

Commentary on Paul's Letters to the Thessalonians by G.G. Findlay 1The Rev George G. Findlay was Professor of Biblical Languages at the training college for Methodist ministers at Headingly, Leeds. My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy of this public domain book available for digitiation.

George Gillanders Findlay [1849-1919], The Epistles to the Thessalonians with Introduction and Map. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1894. Hbk. pp.183. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents


I. Introduction:

Chapter I. The City of Thessalonica

Chapter II. How the Gospel Came to Thessalonica

Chapter III. The Gospel of Paul at Thessalonica

Chapter IV. The Occasion of the Two Epistles

Chapter V. The Style and Character of the Two Epistles

Chapter VI. Analysis and Digest of the Epistles

II. Text and Notes

III. Appendix. On the Man of Lawlessness

IV. Index

Introduction. The City of the Thessalonians

Most of the ancient cities in which St Paul laboured have in the course of ages either perished or sunk into insignificance. Rome still remains, “the eternal city,” holding a unique place amongst the world’s great capitals. And along with Rome, though in a far inferior position, Thessalonica has retained its identity and its importance throughout the immense changes of the last two thousand years.

The town first appears in Greek history under the name of Therma,–so called from the warm mineral springs in its vicinity. Its later designation was given to it by Cassander, who on seizing the vacant throne of Alexander the Great in Macedonia married his sister Thessalonica. Her name was, no doubt, a memorial of some victory gained by her father Philip of Macedon over his neighbours in Thessaly.

Founding a new city upon this site in 315 B.C., the usurper called it after his high born wife. Cassander’s foundation rapidly grew into a place of commercial and political consequence…

Theology of the Letter to the Hebrews by George Milligan

George Milligan [1860-1934], The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews with a Critical IntroductionThe fact that George Milligan’s book on the theology of Hebrews is still being reprinted 119 years after it was published is a good indicator of its enduring value to Bible students.

My thanks to Book Aid for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

George Milligan [1860-1934], The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews with a Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1899. Hbk. pp.233. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  1. The History and Authorship of the Epistle
  2. Internal Evidence as to Authorship
  3. The Destination, Date, and Place of Writing of the Epistle
  4. The Readers, Aim, Characteristics, and Analysis of the Epistle
  5. The Covenant-Idea and the Person of the Son
  6. The Son as High Priest
  7. The High-Priestly Work of the Son
  8. The New Covenant
  9. The Relation of the Epistle to Other Systems of Thought
  10. The Present-Day Significance of the Epistle
  • Indexes


The increasing interest that is being taken in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the ever-deepening feeling of its vital relation to some of the most pressing questions of our own time, must be pleaded in justification of the addition of another to the many books that have recently appeared dealing with it. And at the same time the author ventures to express the hope that the present volume will be found to fill a place hitherto unoccupied at least by any English writer on the subject. For while there are Critical Commentaries on the Epistle in abundance, and Expositions, both scholarly and popular, dealing with its teaching as a whole, he is not aware of any other book in English presenting that teaching in systematic form. He is painfully conscious how far short his own attempt comes of what such a study in Biblical Theology ought to be….

Commentary on the Epistles of John by Alfred Plummer

Commentary on the Epistles of John by Alfred Plummer 2Alfred Plummer, master of University College Durham, was a prolific writer of biblical commentaries. He wrote the volumes on Luke, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians in the International Critical Commentary (ICC) old series, as well as four of the The Cambridge Bible for Schools series.

My thanks to Book Aid for providing a copy of his commentary on John’s letters for digitisation. This volume is in the public domain.

Alfred Plummer [1841-1926], The Epistles of John. The Cambridge Bible for Schools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1892. Hbk. pp.220. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Text and Notes
  3. Appendices
  4. Indices

The Last Years of S. John

A sketch of the life of S. John as a whole has been given in the Introduction to the Fourth Gospel. Here it will not be necessary to do more than retouch and somewhat enlarge what was there said respecting the closing years of his life, in which period, according to all probability, whether derived from direct or indirect evidence, our three Epistles were written. In order to understand the motive and ton,e of the Epistles, it is requisite to have some clear idea of the circumstances, local, moral, and intellectual, in the midst of which they were written.

(i) The Local Surroundings-Ephesus

Unless the whole history of the century which followed upon the destruction of Jerusalem is to be abandoned as chimerical and untrustworthy, we must continue to believe the almost universally accepted statement that S. John spent the last portion of his life in Asia Minor, and chiefly at Ephesus. The sceptical spirit which insists upon the truism that well-attested facts have nevertheless not been demonstrated with all the certainty of a proposition in Euclid, and contends that it is therefore right to doubt them, and lawful to dispute them, renders history impossible. The evidence of S. John’s residence at Ephesus is too , strong to be shaken by conjectures. It will be worth while to state the main elements of it.

Important STEP Bible Update from Dr David Instone-Brewer

Important STEP Bible Update from Dr David Instone-Brewer 3

Accurate STEPBible data is now freely available.  Tyndale House has decided to release their  STEPBible data on a more flexible public licence to make it easier for other free Bible projects to build on accurate information about the Bible text. Inaccurate data can lead to errors and public humiliation – as I’ll describe below.

The software behind STEPBible is available on a public licence (BSD 3-Clause License), so that anyone can make a better version of STEPBible. A couple of teams have used the code to help their own projects. This has also encouraged coders to help maintain and develop STEPBible itself – something we welcome and rely on. So if you have talents in Java and Javascript, with some time to help, do please contact me.

Important STEP Bible Update from Dr David Instone-Brewer 4The data behind STEPBible originated with the usual free sources that many enthusiasts have assembled in the past – to whom everone owes huge gratitude. At Tyndale House we set ourselves to test everything and improve its quality, and then feed this back into the community. The Repository of this updated data is on Github at, where anyone can inspect it, suggest corrections, and also download it for their own projects.

The licence (Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0)  allows anyone to use and adapt the data to fit their project. They can also make corrections, though changes should be recorded for users to see, and we’d prefer they check with Tyndale House first, so our experts can verify it. Tyndale House previously posted this data with a “No Development” (ND) restriction, to help ensure the data remains accurate, but this imposed a difficult legal restriction for some projects, so we are using  this different strategy.

Bodies such as the SBL Biblical Humanities Group have campaigned for Bible data to be more open, so that anyone can use it freely, with less duplication of effort, and to encourage the spread of good research. In Copenhagen this year, ETEN facilitated the meeting of representatives from several organisations, including STEPBible, SIL, UBS, ETCBC, Perseus, Door43 and others, to explore how much private data could be made public. This was the Davos of Bible software, and ground-breaking commitments were made there. One of the results is that STEPBible data will now remove the ND restriction.

The concern that previously prevented this, was that errors might accumulate, unintentionally or even maliciously, so that the trustworthy expertise of Tyndale House scholars might be diluted. Legally, any changes should be reported, but of course this doesn’t always happen. To ensure continual trustworthyness, the original Tyndale House data will always be available in the STEPBible Repository. This includes accurate Greek and Hebrew texts with variants, tagged with vocabulary and parsing, along with simple and detailed lexicons based on academic publications, as well as other datasets analysing the Bible text.

In the past, free software has relied on older data sets which did contain errors. A few years ago I was preparing for a radio debate about a controvertial book with ‘new revelations’ about the family of Jesus. The author’s conclusions turned out to result from his mixing up of two Greek words. He claimed that tekton (‘artisan’ or ‘carpenter’ in Mat.13.55; Mark 6.3) “is derived from the root Greek word ‘timoria‘” (‘punishment’). He added that Jesus’ father was ‘a just man’ (Mt.1.19) and concluded that Joseph was a justice of the peace with the power to judge and punish malefactors! He then published a book based on this ‘discovery’.

Important STEP Bible Update from Dr David Instone-Brewer 5
“5098” in Strong’s Index at e.g.
Important STEP Bible Update from Dr David Instone-Brewer 6
“5088” in the printed edition of Strong’s Index

The author wasn’t a biblical scholar, but he was nevertheless an intelligent man who was well trained in another profession – so how did he make this embarrassing mistake? After hunting around I traced the source of his error to the commonly distributed electronic version of Strong’s Index, which is used by most free software. Due to an uncorrected typo (‘5098’ instead of ‘5088’) it said that tekton comes from timoria.

Sitting with him in the studio, before the red “broadcasting” light turned on, I quickly explained what I’d found, and said that I’d only mention it if he mentioned his ‘discovery’. This removed my killer point in the debate, and left him little to talk about, but at least it prevented his public humiliation.

This experience hardened my resolve to develop accurate tools for intelligent people to rely on. Just because someone isn’t trained in Biblical Studies shouldn’t stop them studying the Bible in as much depth as they want, using information that is checked by scholars and trustworthy. This spurred me to work on STEPBible, and now to make the data available to everyone to use.

David Instone-Brewer

Tyndale House, Cambridge