Babylonian Creation and Flood Stories (1915)

A tablet from the Atrahasis Epic - a Babylonian account of the Flood.
A tablet from the Atrahasis Epic – a Babylonian account of the Flood. [Source: Wikipedia]
The following public domain article is now available on-line in pdf:

Theophilus G. Pinches [1856-1934], “The Old and New Versions of the Babylonian Creation and Flood Stories,” Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 47 (1915): 301-329.

The Old and New Versions of the Babylonian Creation and Flood Stories

Forty years have passed since the late George Smith published his Chaldean Account of Genesis, dedicated to Sir Henry Rawlinson, the great English pioneer of Assyriology. We all remember, or at least realize, what a sensation Smith’s discoveries made, especially the account of the Flood, which traversed the same ground, point by point, as the Hebrew version in Genesis. It was a triumph for our self-taught countryman, and we all know, moreover, to what it led-namely, the despatch of the enterprising Museum – official to the East, first for the Daily Telegraph, and later for the trustees of the British Museum. He was favoured with a fair amount of success, for he found a fragment which was at first supposed to fill a gap of the eleventh tablet of the Gilgames-series, which gives the story of the Flood in reality it was a portion of another version-as well as fragments of Creation-stories. His third and last trip to the nearer East, however, had fatal results, and he never saw his native land again. He had acquired, nevertheless, a large amount of chronological material, and Biblical scholars are his debtors for that as much as for his acquisitions in the realm of Babylonian tradition.

Though the two legends which Smith discovered were written in Semitic Babylonian-now known to be Akkadian-it was clear to all, from the names of the deities and other personages, that they were of non-Semitic or Sumerian origin. The Creation series, which seems to have been written on six tablets, later increased to seven, recorded how everything was at first created and brought forth by Tiawath,” the sea,” and Apsft, “the Deep” or “Ocean.” From these came an only son, named Mummu. Other primeval deities, however, were later regarded as the children of Tiawath-Laymu and Layamu: Ansar and Kisar, the host of heaven and the host of earth; and then came Anu, the god of the heavens (with, it may be supposed, his spouse Anatum). At this point the record breaks off, but Damascius supplies the wanting portion, namely, the information that the successors of Anu were lllinos (cuneiform Illila) and Aos (i.e., Ea or Aa). Of Illila, the god of the earth, the spouse was called Ninlila: and the spouse of Ea or Aa is given by Damascius as Dauke, the Dam-kina of the inscriptions. “And of Aos and Dauke,” adds Damascius, “was born a son called Belos, who, they say, is the fabricator of the world – the Creator.”

Click here to continue reading.

“The Greek Papyri” by George Milligan

George Milligan [1860-1934]
George Milligan [1860-1934]
The following public domain article is now available in PDF:

George Milligan [1860-1934], “The Greek Papyri – with special reference to their value for New Testament study,” Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 44 (1912): 62-78.

George Milligan was an noted biblical scholar in his day as this extract from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography makes clear:

It was a notable pioneering achievement for Milligan to issue, while still at Caputh, a standard commentary on St Paul’s epistles to the Thessalonians (1908), in which among other things he applied the new papyrological evidence to a re-examination of the Pauline grammar and vocabulary. He began his great work, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament (1914–29), in collaboration with J. H. Moulton, and after the issue of part two in 1915 completed it single-handedly. Its comprehensiveness and accuracy provided a foundation for successors to build upon, while remaining readable and full of human interest.

I suspect that this lecture is little-known, but I hope that, like his other works, it will still prove of Interest today.

The Greek Papyri by George Milligan

The most significant fact in the modern study of the New Testament is the recognition that it has a history, and consequently that its several books can only be fully understood in connexion with their surroundings or the special circumstances that called them forth. Everything, therefore, that throws light on the outward conditions of the New Testament writers is of value. And it is just here that we are in a peculiarly favourable position to-day. In the past, archaeological discovery has been mainly concerned with the Old Testament, but now the light it sheds has been extended to the New Testament, and is largely derivable from the immense number of texts on stone, on earthen ware, and on papyrus which recent discoveries have brought within our reach.

It is only with the papyrus texts that we are at present concerned, and for their preservation we have to thank them marvellously dry climate of Egypt. The first finds were made at Gizeh as far back as 1778, but it was not until 1877, when several thousands of papyri were unearthed at Crocodilopolis, or Arsinöe, the ancient capital of the Fayûm district, that public interest was fully aroused. The work of exploration was afterwards extended to Tebtunis, Oxyrhynchus, and other likely sites, with the result that we have now thousands of these texts in our hands. Some were discovered in the ruins of old temples, others in the cartonnage of mummies; but the greater number were found in what were literally the dust or refuse heaps on the outskirts of the towns or villages. The old Egyptians, instead of burning their waste-papers, as is the custom amongst ourselves, were in the habit of tearing them up and throwing them out on these heaps, where, thanks to a covering of desert sand, they have lain in safety all these years.

Click here to continue reading.

Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31.1

Africa Journal of Evangelical TheologyVolume 31.1 (2012) of the Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology is now available for free download by permission of the editorial team at Scott Christian University, Nairobi, Kenya.

This issue focuses on the problem of AIDS/HIV in Africa. It offers some theological perspectives on this subject and considers the wider implications for our understanding evil and its effects in this world.

Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31.1 (2012) Table of Contents

  • Andrew Wildsmith, “AIDS and Theology: Introduction,”
  • Samuel Ngewa, “Who is the Neighbour? An Application of Luke 10:30-37 to the HIV and AIDS Crisis,”
  • Diane Stinton, “‘Into Africa’: Contextual Research Methods for Theology and HIV and AIDS in Africa,”
  • Priscilla Adoyo, “Sexual Issues, HIV/AIDS, and the Role of the Church,”
  • J. Nkansah-Obrempong, “Theology and HIV and AIDS,”
  • Mary Getui/E. Odongi, “Gender Issues in Relation to HIV and AIDS,”
  • Peter Okaalet, “The Church and AIDS in Africa: Towards a Spiritual Answer,”
  • John Chaplin, “Some New Perspectives and Advances on HIV and AIDS Prevention and Treatment,”
  • Keith Ferdinando, “Evil and AIDS: An African Perspective,”
  • Rich Harrell/Committee, “Theological Perspective on HIV and AIDS: Summary statements,”
  • “Resources and Books,”

Click here to visit the download page.

Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 31.2 (3012) Table of Contents

  • Editorial, “Controversy in Politics, Ideology, Theology and the Church,”
  • Judith L. Hill, “The New Testament and Political Democracy,”
  • Timothy M. Njoya, “Church and Politics: With Aspects Relating to Governance, Public Policy and Ethnicity,”
  • Joseph B.O. Okello, “The Pastors, Politics and People of Kenya,”
  • Patrick U. Nwosu, “The Ideal State in Jesus’ Ministry and Contemporary Nigeria.”
  • Tersur Aben, “Is Postmodernism Coherent?”
  • Mark Olander, “Creative Teaching Methods in Theological Education,”
  • Danny McCain, “Pentecostals and Others: Challenging and Learning from Each Other,”
  • “Book Reviews,”
  • “Books Received,”

Issue 31.2 should be available on-line in 2015.