Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives

Essays on the Patriachal NarrativesEssays on the Patriarchal Narratives brings together a team of seven Old Testament scholars who examine the evidence for the authenticity of Genesis 12-50. All of the essays are available for free access. Just click on the individual links below to view.

Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives – Table of Contents

The Patriarchs in Scripture and History – John Goldingay

Methods of Studying the Patriarchal Narratives as Ancient Texts – Alan R. Millard

Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs – John J. Bimson

Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age – Martin J. Selman

Abraham Reassessed – Donald J. Wiseman

The Religion of the Patriarchs – Gordon J. Wenham

Diversity and Unity in the Literary Structure of Genesis – David W. Baker


Today there is renewed interest in the history and traditions of the patriarchal period. Recent publications have sought, among other things, to show that the biblical patriarchs were a literary, even fictional, creation of the first millennium BC, produced to provide the nation of Israel, which came into prominence only then, with ‘founding fathers’. Much of this new writing is helpful in distinguishing what are traditional or speculative interpretations from the basic text of Genesis. Sometimes archaeological evidence has been adduced in support of the historicity of the patriarchs and their cultural background in the second millennium BC which can no longer be sustained. Sometimes, however, the value of such evidence is ignored or belittled.

In the light of the importance of this subject for the proper understanding of the historical reliability and the theological teaching of the Bible (which cannot be separated), the Council of Tyndale House set up an Old Testament project group to look afresh at aspects of the problems raised. These essays are the first fruits of its work. We are grateful to all who have supported the research and to those scholars who have given time to it.

Since such studies depend largely on the validity of the methods of study, this matter has initial place. Attention is given also to matters of tradition-history and structural analysis of the text. The essays review past work and attempt, in their various ways, to break new ground and stimulate further study. They aim to make a positive contribution, not merely to criticize the works of other writers. Each, necessarily, reflects the views of its own author, rather than of the contributors as a whole.

These essays are offered in the context of a continuing debate, yet with the hope that they will prove of interest and help to many concerned with a subject of absorbing historical and theological importance.


© 1980 A.R. Millard & D.J. Wiseman, reproduced by permission. Prepared for the web by Robert I. Bradshaw, January 2004. Please report any typographic errors.

Princeton Theological Review

The Princeton Theological Review was published between 1903 and 1929 and each issue has lengthy articles covering a range of subjects including theology, biographical studies, church history and Christian missions. Its contributors included such notable theologians as B.B. Warfield, James Orr & J. Gresham Machen. Princeton Seminary has very helpfully digitised the entire series and made it available here.

I have provided an enhanced table of contents here which links directly to the PDF versions of the articles. Eventually many of these very useful articles this listing will be integrated into the bibliographies on the Theology on the Web sites.

Theology on the Web: 2016 and Beyond

Theology on the Web

I launched my personal website in 1997 and my first Theology on the Web ministry website in 2001, so I guess that makes me somewhat of an Internet veteran. The Web has developed a great deal over the last 18 years and is now changing at an exponential rate. While it is impossible to know with certainty what the future holds, here are my predictions (or best guesses) for 2016, based on my own experience and observations.

A Further Growth in Mobile Access

April 2015 saw Google change its search algorithm to favour those websites that are accessible on mobile devices. This is hardly surprising, as the majority of new users of the Internet (particularly those in Africa) will be browsing using their phones. So, if you want to keep your ranking in the Search Engines, you will have no choice other than to make sure that your website is Mobile Friendly. If you are not sure if your website is mobile compliant, then Google offers a very helpful tool which you can use to find out.

A Decline in Free Services

The Internet is in a state of rapid transition from a time when many of the services and software offered were free, towards a paid or pay-per-view model. The reasons for this are many, but within my own field of Christian not-for-profit work I put this change down to:

  • A decline in donations to Web ministries since the start of the last recession, which has not yet been reversed.
  • A fall in income from advertising as visitors are increasingly choosing not to click on ads or are using software to block them.

An Increased Demand for Online Theological Journals

Many countries are now beginning to insist that Christian ministers get a recognised qualification before being allowed to lead a legally registered church. I know that this is happening in countries in Africa and I expect that this trend will continue. Governments will not be funding this training, obviously, but many churches will be unable to pay for it either. So, these new students will turn to the Web for free access to theological journals and articles to help them with their courses.

Restricted Access to Theological Journals

There has been a steady acquisition of independent theological journals by the large theological databases, which then restrict access to subscribing academic institutions. While these databases are offered on discounted terms to institutions in the Two-Thirds World, users still need to be registered at those institutions in order to access them. It does not take too much imagination to see how difficult it would be for Christian ministers to do this in countries where Christianity is actively being suppressed.

An Increase in Confessional Websites

There has been (and will increasing be, I predict), a growth in sites offering a subset of Evangelical Christian theology that agrees with a particular Confessional stance. Such sites are often closed (access only to subscribers) and offer students access to a pre-approved set of books and journal articles (with no off-site resources linked).

Why would an educational organisation want to do this?

  • It may be easier to get permission for some material if access is restricted.
  • It is easier to get funding from a particular denomination or confessional grouping if it can be demonstrated that students are being provided only with material that supports that denomination’s doctrinal position.
  • It arises from the concern that exposing students to differing theological views will lead them into doctrinal error.

My own view is that theological education should seek to expose students to a wide range of opinions and give them the tools they need to discern for themselves which of these aligns most closely with Scripture. It is necessary to know both what you believe and also know the opposing view well enough to explain why it is wrong. This cannot be done simply by reading about opposing views second-hand. That is the broader model of theological education within evangelicalism that Theology on the Web is committed to, but in making this commitment I fully realise that I am going against the general trend.

What Do I Hope to See in 2016?

I look forward in 2016 to see the upward trend in visitor numbers and the amount of material downloaded to continue. I am also hoping to find more theological journals to host on the websites. It is always wonderful to get permission to place online a journal that has been out of print for some time, so that its resources can be used anew. I also want to provide a platform for new journals to start, or, like the Caribbean Journal of Evangelical Theology, give out-of-print print journals a chance to move to e-publication. With my new Webserver in place I look forward to the New Year with a sense of expectation and excitement.

What do You Think?

Do you agree with my assessment? What turns do you think the Internet will take next year? Join me in the comments below.

Every Blessing for Christmas and the New Year!