Theology of the Letter to the Hebrews by George Milligan

George Milligan [1860-1934], The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews with a Critical IntroductionThe fact that George Milligan’s book on the theology of Hebrews is still being reprinted 119 years after it was published is a good indicator of its enduring value to Bible students.

My thanks to Book Aid for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

George Milligan [1860-1934], The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews with a Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1899. Hbk. pp.233. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  1. The History and Authorship of the Epistle
  2. Internal Evidence as to Authorship
  3. The Destination, Date, and Place of Writing of the Epistle
  4. The Readers, Aim, Characteristics, and Analysis of the Epistle
  5. The Covenant-Idea and the Person of the Son
  6. The Son as High Priest
  7. The High-Priestly Work of the Son
  8. The New Covenant
  9. The Relation of the Epistle to Other Systems of Thought
  10. The Present-Day Significance of the Epistle
  • Indexes


The increasing interest that is being taken in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the ever-deepening feeling of its vital relation to some of the most pressing questions of our own time, must be pleaded in justification of the addition of another to the many books that have recently appeared dealing with it. And at the same time the author ventures to express the hope that the present volume will be found to fill a place hitherto unoccupied at least by any English writer on the subject. For while there are Critical Commentaries on the Epistle in abundance, and Expositions, both scholarly and popular, dealing with its teaching as a whole, he is not aware of any other book in English presenting that teaching in systematic form. He is painfully conscious how far short his own attempt comes of what such a study in Biblical Theology ought to be….

Commentary on Hebrews by F.W. Farrar

Frederic William Farrar [1831-1903], The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the HebrewsF.W. Farrar, latterly Dean of Canterbury Cathedral, is probably best known of his Life of Christ (1874). The title is somewhat misleading, being taken from title given to the letter by the KJV and Revised Version. In fact, Farrar argues at length that Apollos, rather than Paul, is the best known authorial candidate (see extract below).

My thanks to Book Aid for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Frederic William Farrar [1831-1903], The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1902. Hbk. pp.196. [Click to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

I. Introduction.

  1. Character, Analysis, and Object of the Epistle to the Hebrews
  2. Where was the Epistle written? and to whom?
  3. The Date
  4. Style and Character of the Epistle
  5. Theology of the Epistle
  6. The Author of the Epistle
  7. Canonicity

II. Text and Notes

III. Index

Introduction, pp.48-49.

Apollos meets every one of the necessary requirements. (1) He was a Jew. (2) He was a Hellenist. (3) He was an Alexandrian. (4) He was famed for his eloquence and his powerful method of applying Scripture. (5) He was a friend of Timotheus (6) He had ·acquired considerable authority in various Churches. (7) He had been taught b· an Apostle. (8) He was of the School of St Paul; yet (9) he adopted an independent line of his own (1 Cor. iii. 6). (10) We have no trace that he was ever at Jerusalem; and yet, we may add to the above considerations, that his style of argument-like that of the writer of this Epistle was specially effective as addressed to Jewish hearers. The writer’s boldness of tone (Acts xviii. 26) and his modest self-suppression (1 Cor. xvi. 12) also point to Apollos. The various allusions to Apollos are found in Acts xviii. 24-28; 1 Cor. iii. 4-6, xvi. 12; Tit. iii. 13; and in every single particular they agree with such remarkable cogency in indicating to us a Christian whose powers, whose training, whose character, and whose entire circumstances would have marked him out as a man likely to have written such a treatise as the one before us, that we may safely arrive at the conclusion either that AP0LLOS wrote the Epistle or that it is the work of some author who is to us entirely unknown.

Davidson’s Commentary on Hebrews

Andrew Bruce Davidson (1831 – January 26, 1902)
Andrew Bruce Davidson (1831 – January 26, 1902)

The following public domain book is now available for free download in PDF:

A.B. Davidson [1831-1902], The Epistle to the Hebrews with Introduction and Notes. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, n.d. Hbk. pp.260.

Commentary on Hebrews – Introduction

Chapter 1

The Readers of the Epistle

1. The readers themselves.-ln our English Bibles the Epistle has the heading: “Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews;” and at the end there stands the remark: “Written to the Hebrews from Italy by Timothy.” In the best MSS. the heading reads simply, To the Hebrews, and the remark at the end is wanting, or agrees with the superscription. The heading “To the Hebrews” is the proper heading of the Epistle, and is found from the time that the Epistle is historically mentioned in connection with other New Testament books. It has been supposed that the Epistle was also known under other designations, as, To the Laodiceans, or, To the Alexandrians, but this seems incapable of proof. Though as old as the first historical mention of the Epistle in connection with other New Testament books, the inscription To the Hebrews does not come from the hand of the original writer of the Epistle. It originated, no doubt, in the course of transcription, and whether it rests on tradition or was suggested by the contents of the Epistle cannot be ascertained. Any one reading the Epistle now would stamp it with the same title, apart from all tradition respecting its origin or destination. The term u Hebrews” is used in a wider and in a narrower sense. In a wider sense, it describes all who were descendants of Abraham, wherever they resided, and whatever language they spoke. In this sense it is equivalent to Israelites and opposed to Gentiles (comp.2 Cor. xi. 22; Phil. iii. 5). In its narrower sense, it describes Jews living in Palestine and using the native language of that country. In this sense it is opposed to “Grecians” or Hellenists, that is, foreign Jews, speaking Greek (Acts vi. 1, ix. 27). There is nothing to determine in which of these senses the term is used in the superscription to the Epistle. The Alexandrians understood by it Palestinian Jews; but this is merely their interpretation, and can hardly be assumed to rest on tradition. The phrase “To the Hebrews” might mean of itself that the Epistle was addressed to all Christians of Jewish extraction; but the local colour of the Epistle is very distinct, and the allusions are of such a kind as to make it certain that the Epistle was addressed to “Hebrews” in a particular locality. No allusion is made in the Epistle to Gentile believers, and this seems to imply that it was written to a community consisting exclusively of Jewish Christians, or one at least in which the Hebrew element very greatly predominated. The Author’s view is no doubt that the Hebrews to whom he writes are the true and rightful successors of the Old Testament church; they are “the People” of God, and they are so as believing Hebrews. But this way of regarding them, even though it be based on principles recognised in other New Testament writings (Rom. xi.), would have had something unnatural in it if they had been a minority in the church or circle of churches to which the letter was addressed. Thus all the information which we gather from the inscription to the Epistle is, that it was addressed to Christian believers of the race of Israel-a conclusion which we could have reached apart from any inscription.

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