Commentary on the Johannine Epistles by Johann Ebrard

Johann Heinrich August Ebrard [1822-1903], Biblical Commentary on the Epistles of St. John

I have been unable to find further information about this commentary on the Greek text of the Johannine Epistles or its author Johann Ebrard. It is not mentioned in any of the commentary surveys I have to hand (Carson, Evans or Rosscup), so if anyone can provide any background information, please do so in the comments.

My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy of this public domain work available for digitisation.

Johann Heinrich August Ebrard [1822-1903], Biblical Commentary on the Epistles of St. John in Continuation of the Work of Olshausen with an Appendix on the Catholic Epistles. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1890. Hbk. pp.423. [Click hereto visit the download page]


  • St John the Apostle and his Writings
  • The First Epistle of John. Introduction
    1. The Epistolary Form
    2. Identity of Author and Evangelist
    3. Genuineness of Epistle
    4. Its Relation to the Gospel
    5. Time and Place of Composition, and Circle of Readers
    6. Diction and Spirit of the Epistle
    7. Literature
  • Exposition
  • The Second and Third Epistles of John
    1. Introduction
    2. Exposition of the Second Epistle
  • The Third Epistle of John. Exposition
  • Translation of the Two Epistles
  • Appendix on the Catholic Epistles
  • Index
    1. Greek Words and Phrases Explained
    2. Passages of Scripture incidentally Explained or Illustrated
    3. Principal Matters

St John the Apostle and His Writings

St John occupies a place so peculiar and prominent, among the disciples of our Lord as a person, and among – the New-Testament writers as an author – and the writings which bear his name have always been the object of such various and conflicting discussion-that a comprehensive exhibition of his personal character, his life, his labours, and his literary activity may well be regarded as one of the most difficult undertakings. If, in the brief limits here prescribed to us, we are to succeed, we must enter upon the subject not analytically, but synthetically; that is, we must set out with the collective picture of the Apostle and his writings given in the New Testament, and then pass on to a general view of all the critical questions arising out of it. The personality of the Apostle himself, and the character of his writings, and their adjustment in the extant cycle of New-Testament literature, must first of all be viewed as a thesis; and upon that we may found a universal review of the critical questions which have been raised in relation to those writings.

Three of our Lord’s Apostles stand out prominently from the general circle: St John, St Peter, and St Paul. The last was not in the number of the Twelve. Among them St James, the son of Zebedee and brother of St John, had been singled out by Christ to be the companion of St John and St Peter in the special distinction of witnessing His transfiguration and His deepest humiliation (Mark v. 37; Matt. xvii. 1, xxvi. 37); but St James soon followed his Master in a death of martyrdom (Acts xii. 2), and on that account is less known to us than the rest.

As compared with St Peter, St John exhibits to us a calm and reflective nature, with a preeminent receptivity: every word of his beloved Master, which tends to solve to his heart the mystery which he pondered, he apprehends in his deepest soul, and holds it fast, and meditates upon it, blessedly losing himself in the contemplation of the glory of the Son of Man.

Pages v-vi.

Commentary on Revelation by Alfred Plummer

Alfred Plummer [1841-1926], Revelation. The Pulpit Commentary

This is a commentary on the book of Revelation in The Pulpit Commentary series by Alfred Plummer. It presented difficulties in scanning because of the very poor quality of the paper used. My previous scanner was unequal to the challenge, but my new one has at least provided a readable result, even if it is not up the quality I would like. Plummer also wrote a commentary on the letters of John in the same series, which I will look out for.

My thank to Book Aid for providing a copy of this public domain work for digitisation.

Alfred Plummer [1841-1926], Revelation. The Pulpit Commentary. London & New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1909. Hbk. pp.585. [Click here to visit the download page for this title]


  • Introduction
    1. The Title
    2. Author
    3. Date
    4. Place
    5. Manuscripts
    6. Versions
    7. Quotations
    8. History of the Printed Text
    9. Character of the Greek
    10. Authenticity
  • Commentary
  • Index

Introduction. 1. The Title

The Revelation. – The name given to this book in our Bibles is the English form of the Latin equivalent of the Greek title Apokaluphis. This Greek title is as old as the book itself, and forms the first word of the original text, where it constitutes an essential member of the opening sentence and paragraph. It was consistent with the Hebrew cast of the whole document that the Hebrew fashion of naming books by their initial words should be followed in this instance; but the classical and modern method of designating a. literary work by the name ‘of its principal theme happened here ‘to lead to the same resnlt: Apokaluphis is not only the initial word of the book, but also a subject-title, descriptive of the largest portion of the contents.

In the Vulgate version the Greek word is retained, both in the title and at the commencement of the text. Its proper Latin equivalent, however, is not found by merely writing it in Latin letters, apocalypsis, but by combining the Latin renderings of its two component parts, taking re to represent apo and velatio as synonymous with kaluphis. According to the etymological genius of the respective languages, just as the simple substantive velatio, or kaluphis, signified the act of covering with a veil, so the compound re-velatio, or apo-kaluphis, meant the act of removing, turning back, or taking off the veil, in such a manner as to discover what previously was hidden from view.

The Latin compound, unaltered except by the Anglicizing of its termination, has become thoroughly naturalized in our English language; and on that account it is, for biblical and ministerial use, preferable to the original title, which, even in its Anglicized form, “Apocalypse,” has never ceased to be “Greek” to ordinary English ears….

Pages i-ii

Westminster Commentaries: Pastoral Epistles by Ernest Brown

Ernest Faulkner Brown [1854-1933], The Pastoral Epistles with Introduction and Notes. Westminister Commentaries

This is an exegetical commentary on the Pastoral Epistles of 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus from the Westminster Commentaries series. Ernest Faulkner Brown [1859-1933] was a leader of the Oxford Mission to Calcutta and a Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral in that city.

My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy of this public domain title available for digitisation.

Ernest Faulkner Brown [1854-1933], The Pastoral Epistles with Introduction and Notes. Westminister Commentaries. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1917. Hbk. pp.121. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
    1. Timothy and Lystra
    2. Timothy as companion of S. Paul
    3. Titus as companion of S. Paul
    4. Authorship of the Letters
    5. Titus and Crete
    6. The Second Epistle of Timothy
  • Text and Commentary
    • The First Epistle of Timothy
    • The Second Epistle of Timothy
    • The Epistle of Titus
  • Index


I. Timothy and Lystra.

‘The very brilliant colony of Lystra’ as it delighted to call itself1 was a place of some importance in the middle of the first century. Though merely a small rustic town in the Lycaonian territory of southern Asia Minor, it had been raised some fifty years before to the dignity of a Roman ‘ colony’ by the Emperor Augustus, i.e. it had received a garrison of Roman veterans, with the view of holding in check the wild tribes of the !saurian mountains in its neighbourhood. These Romans would be few in number and would keep very much to themselves ; though they were found in several of the towns which S. Paul visited, Philippi is the only one where they have left any trace on the narrative ; and there they did so owing to peculiar circumstances. The commerce and civic life of such a town would be carried on mainly by the educated Jews and Greeks; by the latter term is meant not only Greeks by race, but also those indigenous inhabitants who had imbued themselves with Greek culture and manners~. The most numerous class of the population would be the Lycaonians, rough and uncultured, from the country round. In these conditions we have an almost exact parallel to many of the country towns in India, more especially those in the hill districts. A small body of Europeans holding themselves aloof may answer to the Roman colonists. The educated Musulmans and Hindus represent the Jews and Greeks by whom the business of the city is carried on. The crowd of aboriginal inhabitants, mostly poor and uneducated, form the main part of the population’. Between the last three classes no very sharp line of demarcation exists. The aboriginals may at any time pse to the level of the educated. The Mahomedans and Hindus mix together freely in the ordinary affairs of life. They draw the line however at intermarriage, whereas between the Jews and Greeks of such a city as Lystra marriage might occasionally take place, as in the case of Timothy’s parents, though owing to the difference of religion and the abhorrence of the stricter Jews for idolatry it could not have been common.

Sir William Ramsay has proved, to the satisfaction of nearly all critics, that Lystra in common with Derbe, Antioch and Iconium belonged to the Roman 1 province of Galatia, and ‘Galatians’ was the name by which their inhabitants would prefer to be called….

Pages xi-xii.