Continuing with the digitisation of volumes of the Cambridge Greek Testament in Spurgeon’s College Library, this is J.H. Bernard’s work on the Pastoral Epistles. Bernard also wrote the 2 volume International Critical Commentary on the Gospel of John.
This is an exegetical commentary on the Pastoral Epistles of 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus from the Westminster Commentaries series. Ernest Faulkner Brown [1859-1933] was a leader of the Oxford Mission to Calcutta and a Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral in that city.
My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy of this public domain title available for digitisation.
‘The very brilliant colony of Lystra’ as it delighted to call itself1 was a place of some importance in the middle of the first century. Though merely a small rustic town in the Lycaonian territory of southern Asia Minor, it had been raised some fifty years before to the dignity of a Roman ‘ colony’ by the Emperor Augustus, i.e. it had received a garrison of Roman veterans, with the view of holding in check the wild tribes of the !saurian mountains in its neighbourhood. These Romans would be few in number and would keep very much to themselves ; though they were found in several of the towns which S. Paul visited, Philippi is the only one where they have left any trace on the narrative ; and there they did so owing to peculiar circumstances. The commerce and civic life of such a town would be carried on mainly by the educated Jews and Greeks; by the latter term is meant not only Greeks by race, but also those indigenous inhabitants who had imbued themselves with Greek culture and manners~. The most numerous class of the population would be the Lycaonians, rough and uncultured, from the country round. In these conditions we have an almost exact parallel to many of the country towns in India, more especially those in the hill districts. A small body of Europeans holding themselves aloof may answer to the Roman colonists. The educated Musulmans and Hindus represent the Jews and Greeks by whom the business of the city is carried on. The crowd of aboriginal inhabitants, mostly poor and uneducated, form the main part of the population’. Between the last three classes no very sharp line of demarcation exists. The aboriginals may at any time pse to the level of the educated. The Mahomedans and Hindus mix together freely in the ordinary affairs of life. They draw the line however at intermarriage, whereas between the Jews and Greeks of such a city as Lystra marriage might occasionally take place, as in the case of Timothy’s parents, though owing to the difference of religion and the abhorrence of the stricter Jews for idolatry it could not have been common.
Sir William Ramsay has proved, to the satisfaction of nearly all critics, that Lystra in common with Derbe, Antioch and Iconium belonged to the Roman 1 province of Galatia, and ‘Galatians’ was the name by which their inhabitants would prefer to be called….
The following Pastoral Epistles commentary is now available for free download in PDF:
E.K. Simpson, M.A., The Pastoral Epistles. The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. London: The Tyndale Press, 1954. Hbk. pp.174.
This book is still in copyright. I have attempted the following to locate the current copyright holder:
1) Contacted the publisher of the book – no record of current copyright holder.
2) Contacted American publisher of another book by the same author – records out-of-date.
3) Wrote to author’s former College – no reply.
4) Wrote to author’s former church – no reply.
5) Posted a resquest for contact information on-line – no response.
6) Have had other works by this author online for several years and have had no contact from copyright holder.
As these searches have failed, I am posting the book and inviting the copyright holder to get in touch with me.
Pastoral Epistles Commentary
I. The Author
The spell cast by Saul of Tarsus over minds of any moral earnestness admits of no question. Unlike his namesake, the first king of Israel, he was shortish of stature. Chrysostom styles him ho tripechus anthropos, and Augustine, playing on his Roman cognomen, paullum modicum quid; but the extent of the shadow he has spread over posterity bears witness to the hulk of his spiritual build. Indeed, his most ardent admirers do not pay him more signal homage in this respect than those detractors from his just fame who ascribe to his influence an age-long perversion of primitive Christianity so entire as to set him at cross purposes with his Master. Such a man’s career throbs with interest to all serious thinkers.
That career, as we all know, bisects itself into two wholly discrepant halves. To explain how the hunting leopard of Pharisaism came to he transformed into one of the Good Shepherd’s most docile lambs has always baffled sceptical ingenuity. The change of front is so utter, and pregnant with such far-reaching issues, that it positively demands the supernatural cause which he himself assigns for it to render the phenomenon intelligible.
But our theme restricts us to those closing days of this marvellous biography about which, strange to say, we know less than about the rest. Whatever he the verdict we pass on the Pastoral Epistles, it cannot be denied that they form a group by themselves, detached from the residue of Paul’s writings and attached to one another by links of their own. Some of the older commentators, in common with Wieseler, a German theologian of the last century, have sought to isolate Titus and the first Epistle to Timothy from its twin brother, and affix on them a date prior to what are known as the ‘Prison Epistles’. They seem to have thought that on any other supposition the apparent references to a revisit of Paul to Ephesus clashed with his declaration in Acts xx to the elders at Miletus that they should ‘see his face no more’. But there are two or three ways of parrying this over-hasty conclusion.