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Book or monograph Tzvi Abusch, Mesopotamian Witchcraft: Towards a History and Understanding of Babylonian Witchcraft Beliefs and Literature. Studies in Ancient Magic & Divination. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Hbk. ISBN: 9004123873. pp.400. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Merling Alomía, "Lesser gods of the Ancient Near East and some comparison with heavenly beings of the Old Testament," Andrews University Seminary Studies 27.2 (Summer 1989): 133.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book James Barr, "The Question of Religious Influence: The Case of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity," Journal of the American Academy of Religion 53 (1985): 201-35.
On-line Resource George Aaron Barton [1859-1942], "Ashtoreth and her influence in the Old Testament," Journal of Biblical Literature 10.2 (1891): 73-91.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource George Aaron Barton [1859-1942], "West Semitic deities with compound names," Journal of Biblical Literature 20.1 (1901): 22-27.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource Cornelis Bennema, "The Strands of Wisdom Tradition in Intertestamental Judaism: Origins, Developments and Characteristics," Tyndale Bulletin 52.1 (2001): 61-82. View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book J. Berman," The 'Sword of Mouths' (Jud. III 16; Ps. CXLIX 6; Prov. V 4): A Metaphor and its Ancient Near Eastern Context," Vetus Testamentum 52.3 (2002): 291-303. [Abstract]
On-line Resource John S. Bergsma, "Once Again, the Jubilee, Every 49 or 50 Years?" Vetus Testamentum 55.1 (2005): 121-125.
Book or monograph Daniel L. Block, The Gods of the Nations. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology. Evangelical Theological Society Monograph Series, No 2, 2nd edn. Grand Rapids/Leicester: Baker/IVP. ISBN: 0851114717. pp.176. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book O. Boehm, "Child Sacrifice, Ethical Responsibility and the Existence of the People of Israel," Vetus Testamentum 54.2 (2004): 145-156.
On-line Resource Religion in the Roman World (Marianne Bonz)
On-line Resource Pieter J.J. Botha, "History and point and view: understanding the Sadducees," Neotestamentica 30.2 (1996): 235-280.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Daniel P. Bricker, "Innocent Suffering in Mesopotamia," Tyndale Bulletin 51.2 (2000): 193-214. View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Daniel P. Bricker, "Innocent Suffering in Egypt," Tyndale Bulletin 52.1 (2001): 83-100.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Wayne A. Brindle, "The origin and history of the Samaritans," Grace Theological Journal 5.1 (Spring 1984): 47-75.View in PDF format pdf [Reproduced Courtesy of the Brethren Digital Archive]
On-line Resource Keith A. Burton, "The Decalogue as Essential Torah in Second Temple Judaism," Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 9/1-2 (1998): 310-317. View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book C. Carmichael, "The Origin of the Scapegoat Ritual," Vetus Testamentum 50.2 (2000): 167-182. [Abstract]
Article in Journal or Book Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., "The Polemic against Baalism in Israel's Early History and Literature," Bibliotheca Sacra 151: 602 (1994): 267-283.
Book or monograph Richard J. Clifford, Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series, No 26. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0915170256. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource William W. Combs, "Nag Hammadi, Gnosticism and New Testament interpretation," Grace Theological Journal 8.2 (Fall 1987): 195-212.View in PDF format pdf [Reproduced Courtesy of the Brethren Digital Archive]
Book or monograph Gessel: Onomasticon of the Hittite PantheonBen H.L. van Gessel, Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Leiden: Brill, 1997. Hbk. ISBN: 9004108092. pp.1100. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Leda Ciraolo & Jonathan Seidel, eds. Magic and Divination in the Ancient World. Studies in Ancient Magic and Divination. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Hbk. ISBN: 9004124063. pp.225. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Cumont: After Life in Roman PaganismFranz Cumont, After Life in Roman Paganism, 1922. R A Kessinger Publishing Co., 2003. Pbk. ISBN: 0766139115. pp.240. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Davies: Death, Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of AntiquityJon Davies, Death, Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity. Religion in the First Christian Centuries Series. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0415129915. pp.272. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph John Day, Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 265. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0826468306. pp.282. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Jason S. DeRouchie, "Circumcision in the Hebrew Bible and Targums: Theology, Rhetoric, and the Handling of Metaphor," Bulletin for Biblical Research 14.2 (2004): 175-203.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource John W. Drane, "The Religious Background," I. Howard Marshall, ed., New Testament Interpretation: Essays on Principles and Methods, 1977. Carlisle: The Paternoster Press, revised 1979. Pbk. ISBN: 0853644241. pp.117-125.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book J.A. Emerton, "'Yahweh and His Asherah': the Goddess or Her Symbol?" Vetus Testamentum 49.3 (1999): 315-337. [Abstract]
Book or monograph Louis H. Feldman, Studies in Hellenistic Judaism. Arbeiten Zur Geschichte Des Antiken Judentums & Des Urchristentums 30. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Hbk. ISBN: 9004104186. pp.616. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Finegan: Myth and MysteryJack Finegan, Myth and Mystery: An Introduction to the Pagan Religions of the Biblical World. Grand Rapids: Baker. ISBN: 080102160X. pp.336. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource John Fischer, "Paul in his Jewish Context," The Evangelical Quarterly 57.3 (July-Sept. 1985): 211-236. View in PDF format pdf [Reproduced by permission of the current copyright holder]
Book or monograph Goldstein: Peoples of an Almighty GodJonathan Goldstein, Peoples of an Almighty God: Competing Religions in the Ancient World. Anchor Bible Reference Library. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Hbk. ISBN: 0385423470. pp.592. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Jules Gomes, "Popular Religion in Old Testament Research: Past, Present & Future," Tyndale Bulletin 54.1 (2003): 31-50.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Robert P. Gordon, "Where Have All the Prophets Gone? The 'Disappearing' Israelite Prophet Against the Background of Ancient Near Eastern Prophecy," Bulletin for Biblical Research 5 (1995): 67-86.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Frederick E. Greenspahn, "Syncretism and Idolatry in the Bible," Vetus Testamentum 54.4 (2004): 480-494. [Abstract]
Article in Journal or Book Gary R. Habermas, "Resurrection Claims in non-Christian Religions," Religious Studies 25 (1989): 167-77.
Book or monograph Hadley: The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and JudahJudith M. Hadley, The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess. University of Cambridge Oriental Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0521662354. pp.282. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource

Gerhard F. Hasel, "Significance of the Cosmology in Genesis 1 in relation to ancient Near Eastern parallels," Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 1-20.View in PDF format pdf

On-line Resource Joseph H. Hellerman, "Purity and nationalism in the Second Temple literature: 1-2 Maccabees and Jubilees," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 46.3 (Sept. 2003): 401-421.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Helyer: Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple PeriodLarry R. Helyer, Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0830826785. pp.528. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Harry A. Hoffner Jr., "Ancient views of prophecy and fulfillment: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30.3 (Sept. 1987): 257-265.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Peter Bolt, "What Were the Sadducees Reading? An Enquiry into the Literary Background of Mark 12:18-23," Tyndale Bulletin 45.2 (1994): 369-394. View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource P.J. Hartin, "The religious nature of first-century Galilee as a setting for early Christianity," Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 331-350.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Instone-Brewer: Prayer and Agriculture. Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New TestamentDavid Instone-Brewer, Prayer and Agriculture. Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 0802847625. pp.456. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Peter Jones, "Androgyny: The Pagan Sexual Ideal," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 43:3 (Sept. 2000): 443-469.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book

Donald P. Ker, "Missionary Motivation in Paul: the Jewish Environment," Irish Biblical Studies 8.4 (1986): 162-178.

Article in Journal or Book John J. Kilgallen, "The Sadducees and the Resurrection of the Dead," Biblica 67 (1986): 478-95.
On-line Resource Kenneth A. Kitchen, "Proverbs and Wisdom Books of the Ancient Near East," Tyndale Bulletin 27 (1976): 69-114. View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Klauck: The Religious Context of Early ChristianityHans-Josef Klauck, The Religious Context of Early Christianity: A Guide to Graeco-Roman Religions. Studies of the New Testament & Its World, Brian McNeil, translator. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark Ltd., 1999. Hbk. ISBN: 0567086933. pp.544. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Seth Kunin, We Think What We Eat: Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 412. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 056708177X. pp.272. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Douglas R. De-Lacey, "In Search of a Pharisee," Tyndale Bulletin 43.2 (1992): 353-372. View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Eugene N. Lane, ed., Cybele, Attis and Related Cults: Essays in Memory of M.J.Vermaseren. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World Series, Vol. 131. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Hbk. ISBN: 9004101969. pp.448. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Y. Levin, "Nimrod the Mighty, King od Kish, King of Sumer and Akkad," Vetus Testamentum 52.3 (2002): 350-366. [Abstract]
Book or monograph Theodore J. Lewis, Cults of the Dead in Ancient Israel and Ugarit. Harvard Semitic Monographs, 39. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1989. Hbk. ISBN: 1555403255. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book M. McNamara, "Half a century of Targum study," Irish Biblical Studies 1.3 (1979): 157-168.
On-line Resource W. Harold Mare, "The Greek Altar in the New Testament and Inter-Testamental Periods," Grace Journal 10.1 (Winter 1969): 26-35.View in PDF format pdf [Reproduced Courtesy of the Brethren Digital Archive]
On-line Resource I. Howard Marshall, "The Messiah in the First Century: A Review Article," Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993) 67-83.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Mendels: The Rise and Fall of Jewish NationalismDoron Mendels, The Rise and Fall of Jewish Nationalism. Jewish and Christian Ethnicity in Ancient Palestine. Publication details: Grand Rapids / Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 0802843298. pp.450. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Methodology in the Study of the Mystery Religions and Early Christianity (Bruce M. Metzger)
On-line Resource Was the New Testament Influenced by Pagan Religions? (Ronald Nash)View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Nuesner: Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian EraJacob Neusner, Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0521349400. pp.320. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Jacob Neusner, "Mr. Sander's Pharisees and Mine," Bulletin for Biblical Research 2 (1992): 143-169.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Penchansky: Twilight of the GodsDavid Penchansky, Twilight of the Gods: Polytheism in the Hebrew Bible. Westminster/John Knox Press, 2005. Pbk. ISBN: 0664228852. pp.160. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Andrew Perriman, "The Corporate Christ: Re-assessing the Jewish background," Tyndale Bulletin 50.2 (1999): 241-264. View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Elaine A. Phillips, "The Tilted Balance: Early Rabbinic Perceptions of God's Justice," Bulletin for Biblical Research 14.2 (2004): 223-240.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Stanley E. Porter, "The Pauline Concept of Original Sin, in Light of Rabbinic Background," Tyndale Bulletin 41.1 (1990): 3-30. View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Tamara Prosic, Development and Symbolism of Passover. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 414. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark, 2005. Hbk. ISBN: 0826470874. pp.224. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Helmer Ringgren, Religions of the Ancient Near East. London: SPCK, 1973. Hbk. ISBN: 028102698X. pp.216. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erwin Rohde, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and the Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks. International Library of Philosophy. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0415225639. pp.644. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Wolter H. Rose, "Messianic Expectations in the Early Post-Exilic Period," Tyndale Bulletin 49.2 (1998): .View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book C. Rowland, "Moses and Patmos: Reflections on the Jewish Background of Early Christianity," Jon Davies, Graham Harvey & Wilfred G.E. Watson, eds., Words Remembered, Texts Renewed: Essays in Honour of John F.A.Sawyer. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement No. 195. Sheffield: Continuum International Publishing Group - Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 1850755426. pp.280-299. {CBD} {Amazon.com
On-line Resource Henry W.F. Saggs, "Some Ancient Semitic Ideas of the Afterlife," Faith and Thought 90.3 (1958): 157-182.View in PDF format pdf [All reasonable efforts have been made to contact the copyright holder of this article without success. If you own the rights, please contact me]
Book or monograph Pharisees, Scribes & Sadducees in Palestinian SocietyAnthony Saldarini, Astrid B. Beck & David Noel Freedman, eds., Pharisees, Scribes & Sadducees in Palestinian Society. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark Ltd., 2001. Pbk. ISBN: 0802843581. pp.352. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Anthony J. Saldarini, "Comparing the Traditions: New Testament and Rabbinic Literature," Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997): 195-204.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource J. Julius Scott, "On the value of intertestamental Jewish literature for New Testament theology," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 23.4 (Dec. 1980): 315-323.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Simon Sherwin, "'I Am Against You': Yahweh's Judgement on the Nations and its Ancient Near Eastern Context," Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 149-View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Gary V. Smith, "The Concept Of God/The Gods As King In The Ancient Near East And The Bible," Trinity Journal 3.1 (1982): 18-38.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Smith: The Early History of GodMark S. Smith, The Early History of God. Yahweh and Other Deities in Ancient Israel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 080283972X. pp.253. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Antony Spawforth, "The Achaean Federal Cult Part 1: Pseudo-Julian, Letters 198," Tyndale Bulletin 46.1 (1995): 151-168. View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Roy A. Stewart, "The Synagogue," Evangelical Quarterly 43.1 (Jan.-Mar. 1971): 36-46.. View in PDF format pdf [All reasonable efforts have been made to contact the current copyright holder without success. If you hold the rights, please contact me]
On-line Resource

Margit L. Süring, "Horn-motifs in the Hebrew Bible and related ancient Near Eastern literature and iconography," Andrews University Seminary Studies 19.3 (Autumn 1981): 249-250.View in PDF format pdf

On-line Resource N.H. Taylor, "Herodians and Pharisees: The historical and political context of Mark 3:6; 8:15; 12:13-17," Neotestamentica 34.2 (2000): 299-310.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Margit L. Süring, "The horn-motifs of the Bible and the ancient Near East," Andrews University Seminary Studies 22.3 (Autumn 1984): 327-340.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource W. St. Clair Tisdall [1859-1928], "Mithraism, Christianity's Greatest Rival Under the Roman Emperors," Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 43 (1911): 237-281.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Karel van der Toorn, Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria and Israel: Continuity and Change in the Forms of Religious Life. Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Hbk. ISBN: 9004104100. pp.552. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the BibleKarel van der Toorn, Pieter W. van der Horst & Bob Becking, eds., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Hbk. ISBN: 9004111190. pp.1260. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Toynbee: Death and Burial in the Roman WorldJ.M.C. Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0801855071. pp.430. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Merrill F. Unger, "The Babylonian and Biblical Accounts of Creation," Bibliotheca Sacra 109: 436 (1952): 304-317.
Book or monograph Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman EmpireLeif E. Vaage, ed., Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire: Competition and Coexistence Among Jews, Pagans and Christians. Laurier (Wilfrid) University Press, 2006. Hbk. ISBN: 0889204497. pp.326. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Benedict Viviano & Justin Taylor, "Sadducees, Angels, and Resurrection (Acts 23:8-9)," Journal of Biblical Literature 111 (1992): 496-8.
On-line Resource Harold M. Wiener [1875-1929], "The Legislations of Israel and Babylonia," Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 41 (1909): 139-166. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Moshe Weinfeld, Normative and Sectarian Judaism in the Second Temple Period. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark, 2005. Hbk. ISBN: 0567044416. pp.304. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource John T. Whitney, "'Bamoth' in the Old Testament," Tyndale Bulletin 30 (1979): 125-147. View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Bruce W. Winter, "The Achaean Federal Imperial Cult II," Tyndale Bulletin 46.1 (1995): 169-178. View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Sectarian Parallels: Qumran and Colosse," Bibliotheca Sacra 121: 482 (1964): 141-152.
Article in Journal or Book Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Tummuz and the Bible," Journal of Biblical Literature 84 (1965): 283-90.
Article in Journal or Book Edwin M. Yamauchi, "The 'Daily Bread' Motif In Antiquity," Westminster Theological Journal 28.2 (1966): 145-156.
Article in Journal or Book Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Anthropomorphism in Ancient Religions," Bibliotheca Sacra 125: 497 (1968): 29-44.
Article in Journal or Book Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Anthropomorphism in Hellenism and in Judaism," Bibliotheca Sacra 127: 507 (1970): 212-222.
On-line Resource Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Magic in the biblical world," Tyndale Bulletin 34 (1983): 169-200. View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Ida Zatelli, "The Origin of the Biblical Scapegoat Ritual: The Evidence of Two Eblaite Texts," Vetus Testamentum 48.2 (1998): 254-263.
Book or monograph Zevit: The Religions of Ancient IsraelZiony Zevit, The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Continuum International Publishing Group - Pinter, 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 0826447287. pp.640. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Roy B. Zuck, "The Practice of Witchcraft in the Scriptures," Bibliotheca Sacra 128 (1971): 352-60.View in PDF format pdf

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