Biblical Linguistics Digitisation Project

Biblical Linguistics Digitisation Project

Dr Dale Brueggemann contacted me recently to request that I make available key Biblical linguistics resources on my website in PDF. A great number of Greek & Hebrew lexicons and grammars are now out of copyright which still have value to Bible students and scholars. Dr David Instone-Brewer from Tyndale House has agreed to make available the language works that Tyndale House have digitised to form the start of what I am calling the Biblical Linguistics Digitisation Project. As my own knowledge of biblical language reference works is very limited I am very grateful to Dale and David for their expertise and advice when selecting material.

Here are the first volumes to be made available through this project. Note that due to the number of pages in each volume the file sizes are very large.

Material available so far

H.F.W. Gesenius, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: With an Appendix Containing the Biblical Aramaic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906. Hbk. pp.1127. [Click to download in PDF]

Marcus Jastrow [1829-1903], A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Tahmud Babli and Yerushalmi and the Midrashic literature: with an index of scriptural quotations. London: Luzac & Co. / New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1903. Hbk. pp.1736. [Click to download in PDF] [283 MB !]

Francis Brown, S.R. Driver & Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament with an appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic based on the Lexicon of William Gesenius as Translated by Edward Robinson. 1906. [Click to download in PDF]

J. Payne Smith, ed., A Compendius Syraic Dictionary Founded Upon the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith, D.D. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1903. Hbk. pp.626. [Click to download in PDF]

William Wilson [1783?-1873], The Bible student’s guide to the more correct understanding of the English translation of the Old Testament by reference to the original Hebrew. London: Wertheim & Macintosh, 1850. Hbk. [Click to download in PDF]

I am trying to find other material to scan and add to the project, so I will keep you all posted when new material is added. In the meantime, visit the Languages section of the Biblical Studies website for more resources.

Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel

Notes on Some Problems in the Book of DanielNotes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel was one of the first collections of articles that I placed on-line. It remains one of my favourites, both for the enduring value of the essays included in it and for Professor Wiseman’s response to my letter requesting his permission to digitise it:

“My own contribution has been wisely followed and I still feel that it answers problems & I would be willing for you to reproduce my chapter with due acknowledgement.”

– D.J. Wiseman, 15th July 2005.

You can download the each article by clicking on the links below.

Some Historical Problems in the Book of Daniel – D.J. Wiseman – pp. 9-18.

The Musical Instruments in Nebuchadnezzar’s Orchestra – T.C. Mitchell and R. Joyce – pp. 19-27.

The Hebrew of Daniel – W.J. Martin – pp. 28-30. 

The Aramaic of Daniel – K.A. Kitchen – 31-79.


This monograph brings together, in expanded form, some of the papers first read at the Tyndale Fellowship Old Testament Study Group meeting at Tyndale House, Cambridge, in July, 1964 to consider some of the many problems to be found in the book of Daniel. While the views here expressed are those of the individual authors, it is considered that the data collected, the subjects covered, and the new theories proposed are sufficiently important to warrant their presentation in a more permanent form. They present a challenge to commonly held views and it is hoped that they will contribute to the further understanding of some of the difficulties studied. All the writers would wish it to be remembered that these contributions were primarily intended to be the basis of discussion, the re-examination of theories, and an indication of further lines of research which might lead to an elucidation of a selected problem.

Prof Kenneth Kitchen on the Aramaic of Daniel

I have just uploaded “The Aramaic of Daniel”, Kenneth Kitchen’s contribution to the 1965 volume by Tyndale Press, Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel:

Kenneth A. Kitchen, “The Aramaic of Daniel,” Notes on Some Problems in the Book Of Daniel. London: The Tyndale Press, 1965. Pbk. pp.31-79.

The article is in PDF format. Other contributions to the volume are available here. Dr T.C. Mitchell’s article on The Musical Instruments in Nebuchadnezzar’s Orchestra should be on-line before the end of the month.