Alfred Plummer on the Pastoral Epistles

The Pastoral Epistles by Alfred PlummerThe commentary on the Pastoral Epistles by Alfred Plummer in the Expositor’s Bible Series is now available for free download in PDF.

Table of Contents

Introductory

Chapter I – The Character and the Genuineness of the Pastoral Epistles

I Timothy

Chapter II – Timothy the Beloved Disciple of S. Paul – His Life and Character

Chapter III – The Doctrine Condemned in the Pastoral Epistles A Jewish Form of Gnosticism – The Gnostic’s Problem

Chapter IV – The Moral Teaching of the Gnostics.-Its Modern Counterpart

Chapter V – The Lord’s Compassion in Enabling a Blasphemer and a Persecutor to Become a Servant of Christ Jesus and a Preacher of the Gospel

Chapter VI – The Prophecies on Timothy. – The Prophets of the New Testament an Exceptional Instrument of Edification

Chapter VII – The Punishment of Hymenaeus and Alexander – Delivering to Satan an Exceptional Instrument of Purification – The Personality of Satan

Chapter VIII – Elements of Christian Worship: Intercessory Prayer and Thanksgiving – The Solidarity of Christendom and of the Human Race

Chapter IX – Behaviour in Christian Worship: Men’s Attitude of Body and Mind: Women’s Attire and Ornament

Chapter X – The Origin of the Christian Ministry: Various Certainties and Probabilities Distinguished

Chapter XI – The Apostle’s Rule Respecting Second Marriages: Its Meaning and Present Obligation

Chapter. XII – The Relation of Human Conduct to the Mystery of Godliness

Chapter XIII – The Comparative Value of Bodily Exercise and of Godliness

Chapter XIV – The Pastor’s Behaviour Towards Women – The Church Widow

Chapter XV – The Pastor’s Responsibilities in Ordaining and Judging Presbyters – The Works that Go Before and that Follow Us

Chapter XVI – The Nature of Roman Slavery and the Apostle’s Attitude Towards It – A Modern Parallel

Chapter XVII – The Gain of a Love of Godliness and the Ungodliness of a Love of Gain

Titus

Chapter XVIII – The Epistle to Titus – His Life and Character

Chapter XIX – The Church in Crete and its Organization – The Apostle’s Directions for Appointing Elders

Chapter XX – Christianity and Unchristian Literature

Chapter XXI – The Meaning and Value of Sobermindedness – The Use and Abuse of Religious Emotion

Chapter XXII – The Moral Condition of Slaves – Their Adornment of the Doctrine of God

Chapter XXIII – Hope as a Motive Power – The Present Hopes of Christians

Chapter XXIV – The Duty of Obedience to Authority with its Limits. – The Duty of Courtesy Without Limits

Chapter XXV – The Co-Operation of the Divine Persons in Effecting the New Birth – The Laver of Regeneration

Chapter XXVI – The Meaning of Heresy in the New Testament and the Apostle’s Directions Respecting Heretical Persons

2 Timothy

Chapter XXVII – The Character and Contents of the Last Epistle of S. Paul – The Nemesis of Neglected Gifts

Chapter XXVIII – The Heartlessness of Phygelus and Hermogenes – The Devotion of Onesiphorus – Prayers for the Dead

Chapter XXIX – The Need of Machinery for the Preservation and Transmission of the Faith – The Machinery of the Primitive Church

Chapter XXX – The Christian’s Life as Military Service; as an Athletic Contest; as Husbandry

Chapter XXXI – The Power of a Belief in the Resurrection and the Incarnation – The Gospel of S. Paul

Chapter XXXII – The Need of a Solemn Charge Against a Controversial Spirit, of a Diligence Free From Shame, and of a Hatred of the Profanity which Wraps Up Error in the Language of Truth

Chapter XXXIII – The Last Days – The Bearing of the Mention of Jannes and Jambres on the Question of Inspiration and the Errors Current in Ephesus

Chapter XXXIV – The Perils of Rationalism and the Responsibilities of a Lifelong Contact with Truth – The Properties of Inspired Writings

Chapter XXXV – The Paradoxical Exultation of the Apostle – His Apparent Failure and the Apparent Failure of the Church – The Great Test of Sincerity

Chapter XXXVI – The Personal Details a Guarantee of Genuineness

Chapter XXXVII – The Apostle Forsaken by Men but Strengthened by the Lord – The Mission to the Gentiles Completed – The Sure Hope, and the Final Hymn of Praise

Commentary on Zechariah by W.H. Lowe

The following biblical commentary is now available for free download in PDF:

William Henry Lowe [1848-1947], The Hebrew Student’s Commentary on Zechariah. London: MacMillian & Co., 1882. Hbk. pp.155.

Commentary on Zechariah

Prolegomena to Chapters I.-VIII.

Personal to the Prophet

Of the personal history of the Prophet Zechariah hardly anything is recorded. He styles himself “Zechariah, son of Berechiah, son of Iddo, the prophet,” which certainly implies that he was the grandson of Iddo. But in Ezra v. 1, vi. 14 he is spoken of as “son of Iddo.” This, however, presents no difficulty, for similarly Jehu is mentioned as son of Jehoshaphat son of Nimshi (2 Kings ix. 14), while(ver. 20) he is called merely son of Nimshi. The father of Zechariah, and the father of Jehu, seem to have been (to use an illustration from modern times) somewhat in the position of Abraham Mendelssohn, they could both boast of being the father and the son of a man of reputation. Knobel’s supposition, then, that “son of Berechiah” (Zech. i. 1, 7) is an interpolation from Is. viii. 2, where Zechariah son of Jeberechiah is mentioned, is unnecessary. In Ezra v. 1, 2 “Zechariah son of lddo” is mentioned as prophesying in conjunction with “Haggai the prophet,” and being instrumental in bringing about the resumption of the work of rebuilding the Temple. We know nothing further for certain about him, except that he prophesied up to the month of Cislev in the 4th year of Darius. Something may, however, be deduced from circumstantial evidence.

Among the Priests and Levites who came up with Zerubbabel is mentioned “Iddo” (Neh. xii. 4), as one of heads of the priestly families (rashe haccohenim) in the days of Jeshua (see p. 32) the High Priest.Again in the days of Joiakim, the son of Jeshua (the High Priest), a Zechariah son of Iddo is mentioned (ver. 10, 12, 16) as one of the heads of families (rashe ha’abhoth), and that evidently among the Priests. From these facts it is deduced by many (and not unreasonably), that Zechariah (like Jeremiah and Ezekiel) was a priest as well as a prophet:and that (supposing the Iddo of Neh. xii. 4, 16 to be the same person that is mentioned in Zech. i. 1), while Zechariah began his ministry during the High-priesthood of Joshua, he was head of his family in the days of Joiakim the son of Joshua. Thus Zechariah’s father, probably died early and never became the head of his family, and Zechariah a young man at the time of the return from the Captivity.

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John Calvin on the Pastorals and Philemon

John Calvin, author of Commentaries on the Pastoral Epistles and Philemon
John Calvin [1509-1564]
The following commentaries by John Calvin are now available on-line in PDF:

John Calvin, (Translated from the Original Latin by the Rev. William Pringle). Commentaries on the Epistles to Timothy, Titus and Philemon. Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1856. Hbk. pp.398.

John Calvin’s Commentaries on the Pastoral Epistles and Philemon

The Argument of the First Epistle of Timothy

This Epistle appears to me to have been written more for the sake of others than for the sake of Timothy, and that opinion will receive the assent of those who shall carefully consider the whole matter. I do not, indeed, deny that Paul intended also to teach and admonish him but my view of the Epistle is, that it contains many things which it would have been superfluous to write, if he had had to deal with Timothy alone. He was a young man, not yet clothed with that authority which would have been, sufficient for restraining the headstrong men that rose up against him. It is manifest, from the words used by Paul, that there were at that time some who were prodigiously inclined o ostentation, and for that reason would not willingly yield to any person, and who likewise burned with such ardent ambition, that they would never have ceased to disturb the Church, had not a greater than Timothy interposed. It is likewise manifest, that there were many things to be adjusted at Ephesus, and that needed the approbation of Paul, and the sanction of his name. Raving therefore intended to give advice to Timothy on many subjects, he resolved at the same time to advise others under the name of Timothy. In the first chapter, he attacks some ambitious persons who made their boast of discussing idle questions. It may readily be concluded that they were Jews, who, while they pretended to have zeal for the law, disregarded edification, and attended only to frivolous disputes.

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